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Charge fluctuation entropy of Hawking radiation: A replica-free way to find large entropy

Alexey Milekhin, Amirhossein Tajdini

SciPost Phys. 14, 172 (2023) · published 28 June 2023


We study the fluctuation entropy for two-dimensional matter systems with an internal symmetry coupled to Jackiw-Teitelboim (JT) gravity joined to a Minkowski region. The fluctuation entropy is the Shannon entropy associated to probabilities of finding particular charge for a region. We first consider a case where the matter has a global symmetry. We find that the fluctuation entropy of Hawking radiation shows an unbounded growth and exceeds the entanglement entropy in presence of islands. This indicates that the global symmetry is violated. We then discuss the fluctuation entropy for matter coupled to a two-dimensional gauge field. We find a lower bound on the gauge coupling $g_0$ in order to avoid a similar issue. Also, we point out a few puzzles related to the island prescription in presence of a gauge symmetry.

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