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Riemannian optimization of isometric tensor networks

Markus Hauru, Maarten Van Damme, Jutho Haegeman

SciPost Phys. 10, 040 (2021) · published 17 February 2021


Several tensor networks are built of isometric tensors, i.e. tensors satisfying $W^\dagger W = \mathrm{I}$. Prominent examples include matrix product states (MPS) in canonical form, the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), and quantum circuits in general, such as those needed in state preparation and quantum variational eigensolvers. We show how gradient-based optimization methods on Riemannian manifolds can be used to optimize tensor networks of isometries to represent e.g. ground states of 1D quantum Hamiltonians. We discuss the geometry of Grassmann and Stiefel manifolds, the Riemannian manifolds of isometric tensors, and review how state-of-the-art optimization methods like nonlinear conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton algorithms can be implemented in this context. We apply these methods in the context of infinite MPS and MERA, and show benchmark results in which they outperform the best previously-known optimization methods, which are tailor-made for those specific variational classes. We also provide open-source implementations of our algorithms.

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