A few years ago, flow equations were introduced as a technique for calculating the ground-state energies of cold Bose gases with and without impurities. In this paper, we extend this approach to compute observables other than the energy. As an example, we calculate the densities, and phase fluctuations of one-dimensional Bose gases with one and two impurities. For a single mobile impurity, we use flow equations to validate the mean-field results obtained upon the Lee-Low-Pines transformation. We show that the mean-field approximation is accurate for all values of the boson-impurity interaction strength as long as the phase coherence length is much larger than the healing length of the condensate. For two static impurities, we calculate impurity-impurity interactions induced by the Bose gas. We find that leading order perturbation theory fails when boson-impurity interactions are stronger than boson-boson interactions. The mean-field approximation reproduces the flow equation results for all values of the boson-impurity interaction strength as long as boson-boson interactions are weak.
Authors / Affiliations: mappings to Contributors and OrganizationsSee all Organizations.
- 1 2 Fabian Brauneis,
- 1 3 Hans-Werner Hammer,
- 2 Mikhail Lemeshko,
- 2 Artem Volosniev
- 1 Technische Universität Darmstadt / Technical University of Darmstadt [TU Darmstadt]
- 2 Institute of Science and Technology Austria [IST]
- 3 ExtreMe Matter Institute [EMMI]
- Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft / German Research FoundationDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [DFG]
- European Research Council [ERC]
- Horizon 2020 (through Organization: European Commission [EC])