We study the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of the quantum cellular automaton Rule 54 using a time-channel approach. We exhibit a family of (non-equilibrium) product states for which we are able to describe exactly the full relaxation dynamics. We use this to prove that finite subsystems relax to a one-parameter family of Gibbs states. We also consider inhomogeneous quenches. Specifically, we show that when the two halves of the system are prepared in two different solvable states, finite subsystems at finite distance from the centre eventually relax to the non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) predicted by generalised hydrodynamics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first exact description of the relaxation to a NESS in an interacting system and, therefore, the first independent confirmation of generalised hydrodynamics for an inhomogeneous quench.
Cited by 1
Klobas et al., Entanglement dynamics in Rule 54: Exact results and quasiparticle picture
SciPost Phys. 11, 107 (2021) [Crossref]