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Event Generation and Density Estimation with Surjective Normalizing Flows

Rob Verheyen

SciPost Phys. 13, 047 (2022) · published 2 September 2022


Normalizing flows are a class of generative models that enable exact likelihood evaluation. While these models have already found various applications in particle physics, normalizing flows are not flexible enough to model many of the peripheral features of collision events. Using the framework of Nielsen et al. (2020), we introduce several surjective and stochastic transform layers to a baseline normalizing flow to improve modelling of permutation symmetry, varying dimensionality and discrete features, which are all commonly encountered in particle physics events. We assess their efficacy in the context of the generation of a matrix element-level process, and in the context of anomaly detection in detector-level LHC events.

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