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Gauging Lie group symmetry in (2+1)d topological phases

Meng Cheng, Po-Shen Hsin, Chao-Ming Jian

SciPost Phys. 14, 100 (2023) · published 9 May 2023


We present a general algebraic framework for gauging a 0-form compact, connected Lie group symmetry in (2+1)d topological phases. Starting from a symmetry fractionalization pattern of the Lie group $G$, we first extend $G$ to a larger symmetry group $\tilde{G}$, such that there is no fractionalization with respect to $\tilde{G}$ in the topological phase, and the effect of gauging $\tilde{G}$ is to tensor the original theory with a $\tilde{G}$ Chern-Simons theory. To restore the desired gauge symmetry, one then has to gauge an appropriate one-form symmetry (or, condensing certain Abelian anyons) to obtain the final result. Studying the consistency of the gauging procedure leads to compatibility conditions between the symmetry fractionalization pattern and the Hall conductance. When the gauging can not be consistently done (i.e. the compatibility conditions can not be satisfied), the symmetry $G$ with the fractionalization pattern has an 't Hooft anomaly and we present a general method to determine the (3+1)d topological term for the anomaly. We provide many examples, including projective simple Lie groups and unitary groups to illustrate our approach.

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