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Skyrmion jellyfish in driven chiral magnets

Nina del Ser, Vivek Lohani

SciPost Phys. 15, 065 (2023) · published 17 August 2023


Chiral magnets can host topological particles known as skyrmions which carry an exactly quantised topological charge $Q=-1$. In the presence of an oscillating magnetic field $B_1(t)$, a single skyrmion embedded in a ferromagnetic background will start to move with constant velocity v$_{trans}$. The mechanism behind this motion is similar to the one used by a jellyfish when it swims through water. We show that the skyrmion's motion is a universal phenomenon, arising in any magnetic system with translational modes. By projecting the equation of motion onto the skyrmion's translational modes and going to quadratic order in $B_1(t)$, we obtain an analytical expression for v$_{trans}$ as a function of the system's linear response. The linear response and consequently v$_{trans}$ are influenced by the skyrmion's internal modes and scattering states, as well as by the ferromagnetic background's Kittel mode. The direction and speed of v$_{trans}$ can be controlled by changing the polarisation, frequency and phase of the driving field $B_1(t)$. For systems with small Gilbert damping parameter $\alpha$, we identify two distinct physical mechanisms used by the skyrmion to move. At low driving frequencies, the skyrmion's motion is driven by friction, and $v_{trans}\sim\alpha$, whereas at higher frequencies above the ferromagnetic gap the skyrmion moves by magnon emission, and $v_{trans}$ becomes independent of $\alpha$.

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