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Viability of rotation sensing using phonon interferometry in Bose-Einstein condensates

Charles W. Woffinden, Andrew J. Groszek, Guillaume Gauthier, Bradley J. Mommers, Michael. W. J. Bromley, Simon A. Haine, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Matthew J. Davis, Tyler W. Neely, Mark Baker

SciPost Phys. 15, 128 (2023) · published 2 October 2023


We demonstrate the use of a ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate as a rotation sensor by measuring the interference between two counter-propagating phonon modes imprinted azimuthally around the ring. We observe rapid decay of the excitations, quantified by quality factors of at most Q ≈ 27. We numerically model our experiment using the c-field methodology, allowing us to estimate the parameters that maximise the performance of our sensor. We explore the damping mechanisms underlying the observed phonon decay, and identify two distinct Landau scattering processes that each dominate at different driving amplitudes and temperatures. Our simulations reveal that Q is limited by strong damping of phonons even in the zero temperature limit. We perform an experimental proof-of-principle rotation measurement using persistent currents imprinted around the ring. We demonstrate a rotation sensitivity of up to $\Delta \Omega ≈ 0.3 rad s^{-1}$ from a single image, with a theoretically achievable value of $\Delta \Omega ≈ 0.04 rad s^{-1}$ in the atomic shot-noise limit. This is a significant improvement over the shot-noise-limited $\Delta \Omega ≈ 1 rad s^{-1}$ sensitivity obtained by Marti et al. [Phys. Rev. A 91, 013602 (2015)] for a similar setup.

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