Relative entropy in scattering and the S-matrix bootstrap

Anjishnu Bose, Parthiv Haldar, Aninda Sinha, Pritish Sinha, Shaswat S Tiwari

SciPost Phys. 9, 081 (2020) · published 24 November 2020

Abstract

We consider entanglement measures in 2-2 scattering in quantum field theories, focusing on relative entropy which distinguishes two different density matrices. Relative entropy is investigated in several cases which include $\phi^4$ theory, chiral perturbation theory ($\chi PT$) describing pion scattering and dilaton scattering in type II superstring theory. We derive a high energy bound on the relative entropy using known bounds on the elastic differential cross-sections in massive QFTs. In $\chi PT$, relative entropy close to threshold has simple expressions in terms of ratios of scattering lengths. Definite sign properties are found for the relative entropy which are over and above the usual positivity of relative entropy in certain cases. We then turn to the recent numerical investigations of the S-matrix bootstrap in the context of pion scattering. By imposing these sign constraints and the $\rho$ resonance, we find restrictions on the allowed S-matrices. By performing hypothesis testing using relative entropy, we isolate two sets of S-matrices living on the boundary which give scattering lengths comparable to experiments but one of which is far from the 1-loop $\chi PT$ Adler zeros. We perform a preliminary analysis to constrain the allowed space further, using ideas involving positivity inside the extended Mandelstam region, and elastic unitarity.

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