Clifford circuits are insufficient for universal quantum computation or creating $t$-designs with $t\ge 4$. While the entanglement entropy is not a telltale of this insufficiency, the entanglement spectrum is: the entanglement levels are Poisson-distributed for circuits restricted to the Clifford gate-set, while the levels follow Wigner-Dyson statistics when universal gates are used. In this paper we show, using finite-size scaling analysis of different measures of level spacing statistics, that in the thermodynamic limit, inserting a single T $(\pi/8)$ gate in the middle of a random Clifford circuit is sufficient to alter the entanglement spectrum from a Poisson to a Wigner-Dyson distribution.
Cited by 3
Salvatore Francesco Emanuele Oliviero et al., Random matrix theory of the isospectral twirling
SciPost Phys. 10, 076 (2021) [Crossref]
Jason Iaconis, Quantum State Complexity in Computationally Tractable Quantum Circuits
PRX Quantum 2, 010329 (2021) [Crossref]
Lorenzo Leone et al., Quantum Chaos is Quantum
Quantum 5, 453 453 (2021) [Crossref]