Axel Cortés Cubero, Robert M. Konik, Máté Lencsés, Giuseppe Mussardo, Gabor Takács
SciPost Phys. 12, 162 (2022) ·
published 16 May 2022

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The thermal deformation of the critical point action of the 2D tricritical Ising model gives rise to an exact scattering theory with seven massive excitations based on the exceptional $E_7$ Lie algebra. The high and low temperature phases of this model are related by duality. This duality guarantees that the leading and subleading magnetisation operators, $\sigma(x)$ and $\sigma'(x)$, in either phase are accompanied by associated disorder operators, $\mu(x)$ and $\mu'(x)$. Working specifically in the high temperature phase, we write down the sets of bootstrap equations for these four operators. For $\sigma(x)$ and $\sigma'(x)$, the equations are identical in form and are parameterised by the values of the oneparticle form factors of the two lightest $\mathbb{Z}_2$ odd particles. Similarly, the equations for $\mu(x)$ and $\mu'(x)$ have identical form and are parameterised by two elementary form factors. Using the clustering property, we show that these four sets of solutions are eventually not independent; instead, the parameters of the solutions for $\sigma(x)/\sigma'(x)$ are fixed in terms of those for $\mu(x)/\mu'(x)$. We use the truncated conformal space approach to confirm numerically the derived expressions of the matrix elements as well as the validity of the $\Delta$sum rule as applied to the offcritical correlators. We employ the derived form factors of the order and disorder operators to compute the exact dynamical structure factors of the theory, a set of quantities with a rich spectroscopy which may be directly tested in future inelastic neutron or Raman scattering experiments.
SciPost Phys. 8, 004 (2020) ·
published 13 January 2020

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Within the generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) formalism for quantum integrable models, it is possible to compute simple expressions for a number of correlation functions at the Eulerian scale. Specializing to integrable relativistic field theories, we show the same correlators can be computed as a sum over form factors, the GHD regime corresponding to the leading contribution with one particlehole pair on a finite energydensity background. The thermodynamic bootstrap program (TBP) formalism was recently introduced as an axiomatic approach to computing such finiteenergydensity form factors for integrable field theories. We derive a new axiom within the TBP formalism from which we easily recover the predicted GHD Eulerian correlators. We also compute higher form factor contributions, with more particlehole pairs, within the TBP, allowing for the computation of correlation functions in the diffusive, and beyond, GHD regimes. The two particlehole form factors agree with expressions recently conjectured within the~GHD.
SciPost Phys. 5, 025 (2018) ·
published 21 September 2018

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In (1+1)dimensional quantum field theory, integrability is typically defined as the existence of an infinite number of local charges of different Lorentz spin, which commute with the Hamiltonian. A well known consequence of integrability is that scattering of particles is elastic and factorizable. These properties are the basis for the bootstrap program, which leads to the exact computation of Smatrices and form factors. We consider periodicallydriven field theories, whose stroboscopic timeevolution is described by a Floquet Hamiltonian. It was recently proposed by Gritsev and Polkovnikov that it is possible for some form of integrability to be preserved even in driven systems. If a driving protocol exists such that the Floquet Hamiltonian is integrable (such that there is an infinite number of local and independent charges, a subset of which are parityeven, that commute with it), we show that there are strong conditions on the stroboscopic time evolution of particle trajectories, analogous to Smatrix elasticity and factorization. We propose a new set of axioms for the time evolution of particles which outline a new bootstrap program, which can be used to identify and classify integrable Floquet protocols. We present some simple examples of driving protocols where Floquet integrability is manifest; in particular, we also show that under certain conditions, some integrable protocols proposed by Gritsev and Polkovnikov are solutions of our new bootstrap equations.
SciPost Phys. 4, 016 (2018) ·
published 27 March 2018

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At thermal equilibrium, the concept of effective central charge for massive deformations of twodimensional conformal field theories (CFT) is well understood, and can be defined by comparing the partition function of the massive model to that of a CFT. This temperaturedependent effective charge interpolates monotonically between the central charge values corresponding to the IR and UV fixed points at low and high temperatures, respectively. We propose a nonequilibrium, timedependent generalization of the effective central charge for integrable models after a quantum quench, $c_{\rm eff}(t)$, obtained by comparing the return amplitude to that of a CFT quench. We study this proposal for a large mass quench of a free boson, where the charge is seen to interpolate between $c_{\rm eff}=0$ at $t=0$, and $c_{\rm eff}\sim 1$ at $t\to\infty$, as is expected. We use our effective charge to define an "Ising to Tricritical Ising" quench protocol, where the charge evolves from $c_{\rm eff}=1/2$ at $t=0$, to $c_{\rm eff}=7/10$ at $t\to\infty$, the corresponding values of the first two unitary minimal CFT models. We then argue that the inverse "Tricritical Ising to Ising" quench is impossible with our methods. These conclusions can be generalized for quenches between any two adjacent unitary minimal CFT models. We finally study a large mass quench into the "staircase model" (sinhGordon with a particular complex coupling). At short times after the quench, the effective central charge increases in a discrete "staircase" structure, where the values of the charge at the steps can be computed in terms of the central charges of unitary minimal CFT models. When the initial state is a pure state, one always finds that $c_{\rm eff}(t\to\infty)\geq c_{\rm eff}(t=0)$, though $c_{\rm eff}(t)$, generally oscillates at finite times. We explore how this constraint may be related to RG flow irreversibility.
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