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Gauging permutation symmetries as a route to non-Abelian fractons

by Abhinav Prem, Dominic J. Williamson

This Submission thread is now published as

Submission summary

Authors (as registered SciPost users): Abhinav Prem
Submission information
Preprint Link:  (pdf)
Date accepted: 2019-11-11
Date submitted: 2019-10-22 02:00
Submitted by: Prem, Abhinav
Submitted to: SciPost Physics
Ontological classification
Academic field: Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics - Theory
  • Quantum Physics
Approach: Theoretical


We discuss the procedure for gauging on-site $\mathbb{Z}_2$ global symmetries of three-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians that permute quasi-particles and provide general arguments demonstrating the non-Abelian character of the resultant gauged theories. We then apply this general procedure to lattice models of several well known fracton phases: two copies of the X-Cube model, two copies of Haah's cubic code, and the checkerboard model. Where the former two models possess an on-site $\mathbb{Z}_2$ layer exchange symmetry, that of the latter is generated by the Hadamard gate. For each of these models, upon gauging, we find non-Abelian subdimensional excitations, including non-Abelian fractons, as well as non-Abelian looplike excitations and Abelian fully mobile pointlike excitations. By showing that the looplike excitations braid non-trivially with the subdimensional excitations, we thus discover a novel gapped quantum order in 3D, which we term a "panoptic" fracton order. This points to the existence of parent states in 3D from which both topological quantum field theories and fracton states may descend via quasi-particle condensation. The gauged cubic code model represents the first example of a gapped 3D phase supporting (inextricably) non-Abelian fractons that are created at the corners of fractal operators.

Author comments upon resubmission

Dear Editor and Referee,

Thank for your careful consideration and review of our work. We thank the referee for their kind remarks regarding our manuscript. In accordance with the referee's report, we have clarified the caption for Fig. 2, where the two colours (blue/green) are used to distinguish between the distinct layers.

Abhinav Prem and Dominic Williamson

List of changes

1) We have clarified the caption for Figure 2.

Published as SciPost Phys. 7, 068 (2019)

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