SciPost Submission Page
Exploring Jet Substructure in Semi-visible jets
by Deepak Kar, Sukanya Sinha
|As Contributors:||Deepak Kar · Sukanya Sinha|
|Arxiv Link:||https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.11597v3 (pdf)|
|Date submitted:||2020-12-04 08:33|
|Submitted by:||Kar, Deepak|
|Submitted to:||SciPost Physics|
Semi-visible jets arise in strongly interacting dark sectors, where parton evolution includes dark sector emissions, resulting in jets overlapping with missing transverse momentum. The implementation of semi-visible jets is done using the Pythia Hidden valley module to duplicate the QCD sector showering. In this work, several jet substructure observables have been examined to compare semi-visible jets and light quark/gluon jets. These comparisons were performed using different dark hadron fraction in the semi-visible jets (signal). The extreme scenarios where signal consists either of entirely dark hadrons or visible hadrons offers a chance to understand the effect of the specific dark shower model employed in these comparisons. We attempt to decouple the behaviour of jet-substructure observables due to inherent semi-visible jet properties, from model dependence owing to the existence of only one dark shower model as mentioned above.
Submission & Refereeing History
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Reports on this Submission
Anonymous Report 3 on 2021-2-19 Invited Report
1) Paper explores a process in which hadronic jets are produced in proton-proton collisions but contain DM particles that cannot be detected. This is a relatively new idea and is not well investigated at the LHC
2) Paper addresses the use of jet substructure methods can be used to separate the signal (semi-visible jets = jets containing DM) from the background processes (jets containing SM particles only)
1) It is unclear whether the main backgrounds are properly investigated. The signal consists of jets containing visible particles (that can be reconstructed) and invisible particles (the DM, cannot be reconstructed). The "background" is taken to be multijet production. However, Z+jets and W+jets processes can give a signal that is more similar to the signal than the multijet process. For example,
- a Z-boson that recoils against a high-pt jet could produce the appropriate signal-like signature when the Z decays to tau-antitau. It would be appropriate to investigate this background to see how signal-like it is in the jet-substructure..
- A W-boson that is emitted close to a high-pt quark can produce the appropriate signal-like signature when the W decays to a charged-lepton and neutrino. Again, it would be appropriate to investigate this background to see how signal-like it is in the jet-substructure.
(2) The investigated multijet background is produced using Pythia8, implying it is generated as a 2->2 scatter and showered. However, the signal is produced with up to 4 particles in the matrix-element using Madgraph. Given the DM can then instigate a SM shower, it means the signal effectively has up to 4-jets at ME level. It is not clear to what level the difference between the signal and background is induced by the modelling differences between Madgraph+Pythia and pure Pythia.
(3) Experimentally, the MET+jets signature at the LHC is investigated by requiring that the jet and the missing transverse momentum are well separated in azimuthal angle (dphi(MET,jet)>0.4). The reason is that jets are mismeasured in calorimeters, which induces a MET signature. The analysis done here proposes to select events with dphi(MET,jet)<1.0, to understandably capture the missing transverse momentum close-by the jet. However, no discussion is given in the paper as to the experimental difficulties of doing this.
(4) I found it very difficult to understand the final states that are investigated. Section 3 defines that we produce the signal with up to 2 extra partons, does that mean we generate at ME-level the following: (i) SM SM -> DM DM, (ii) SM SM -> DM DM SM, (iii) SM SM -> DM DM SM SM? The exact generation needs to be more explicit.
(5) The theory section has a lot of discussion that eventually is not needed (the effective lagrangian) and then few details on the explicit model used. For example, there seems to be a coupling parameter lambda, which affects the cross section of the process in figure 3, that is not discussed at all. The theory section should focus on clearly explaining the model that was generated.
The expectations are met, in that the research explores a new research direction and, if successful, could lead to many measurements from the ATLAS and CMS experiments.
The general criteria are mostly met, but a clearer theory section to explicitly state how the signal and background topologies are generated would be very useful (general criterion 3). In addition, the text could be made a little clearer in quite a few places (general criterion 1).
It is my opinion that any deficiencies can be addressed by the authors and the paper can satisfy all criteria to be published in SciPost Physics.
1) Add investigation of more backgrounds:
- Z+jets (Z->tautau).
- W+jets (W->lnu, l=e,mu,tau)
(2) Investigate the impact of using Madgraph+Pythia8 for the multijet background, with up to 4 partons in the final state). Ideally, could just change the background model to use Madgraph+Pythia directly.
(3) Add a discussion about experimental considerations, given that current MET+jets searches impose a cut on dphi(MET,jet)>0.4 to remove the impact of mis-measured jets. The goal is to explain how experimenters can avoid being affected by mismeasured jets if searching for semi-visible jets at the LHC.
(4) Improve the theory section:
- add a discussion to explain exactly what is generated for the signal, and include Feynman diagrams as appropriate. Similarly, need to fully explain the background process physics, rather than just referring to "HardQCD" process.
- improve the discussion of the model in the theory section, including a full description of all parameters and focussing on aspects that affect this particular analysis (rather than general considerations of effective lagrangians)
(5) Some aesthetics:
- why not use a subscript "d" for all dark mesons. Makes it easier to read.
- can the legend labelling be improved? i.e. in fig 4 Signal, r_inv=0.5 is far more meaningful than Sig50.
- C2 and D2 seem to be identical. Needs fixing. Why do you need to discuss D2 at all? there are no plots of D2 in the paper.
Report 2 by Tilman Plehn on 2021-1-13 Invited Report
1- the paper tackles a relevant and timely problem, namely to search for dark matter or other new physics outside the hard scattering;
2- it's actually a very hard problem;
3- the results are documented very well.
1- the focus on high-level substructure variables is a little behind the wave, technically;
2- it remains unclear if there is such a thing as a best-suited observable basis and how more observables might help.
The paper makes for an interesting contribution to an active and relevant field. It is not a break-through, but it is definitely worth publishing. It also defines a very nice starting point for future studies, because it is very well documented.
1- for the model, please give a Lagrangian or some appropriate definition in the beginning;
2- along the same line, Sec. 4.1 includes too much code-related slang for most readers to follow;
3- where is \lambda defined, before it appears in the last paragraph on p.3?
4- in the discussion of Fig.4 the authors talk about the leading/sub-leading svj, what does this mean in terms of physics?
5- on p.5 the authors start a paragraph with `Among these observables...', and I a not sure I see where this argument is coming from;
6- at the very end of Sec. 3 the authors mention detector effects. For low-level variables we have found that detector effects can make a huge difference, why is this different here. Please document as well;
7- the discussion of IRS and ME jets on p.8 is very interesting, but I have to admit that I do not understand the physics reason for the different impact, please explain that or elaborate. Could that be related to heavy-flavor jets?
8- little thing, DH in Fig.8 is not defined (as far as I can tell);
9- please cite some of the high-level or low-level analyses which were done before Ref.. Not sure how many there were, but we certainly did one with our autoencoder, also referenced in Ref..
Anonymous Report 1 on 2021-1-3 Invited Report
The paper uses state-of-the-art jet substructure variables to confront the experimentally challenging and phenomenologically interesting topic of semi-visible jets.
The method is clearly documented and the code used is open source and widely available so the results should be readily reproducible.
The main conclusion, that interesting jet substructure is present in these jets and that is primarily caused by the invisible shower, not by either dark hadron decay or additional QCD radiation, seems substantiated and to be of quite general interest.
There are places where important conclusions of sub-studies the authors have carried out are stated without giving evidence or enough detail.
The study relies on a single implementation of a dark shower model, not carried out by the authors. (However efforts are made in the study to address this weakness.)
There are number of slips in the language, which may be typos but which in places do interfere with the understanding.
Since the authors have brought experimental expertise in jet substructure to bear on a new area, I think the paper could arguably be said to meet two of the criteria for the journal:
3. Open a new pathway in an existing or a new research direction, with clear potential for multipronged follow-up work;
4. Provide a novel and synergetic link between different research areas.
However, I think the strength of this "opening" and "linking" depends on the responses to the comments, and as it stands, it is not publishable in SciPost physics. With sufficiently compelling/complete responses, this opinion would likely change.
1. On the face of it, heavy flavour jets (especially charm), which more often contain neutrinos, would be a background of concern, but they are not discussed, or studied (unless g --> ccbar included in the shower? if so maybe this would be the dominant source anyway). The authors should either study them, or else explain their rationale for neglecting them, and estimate the impact.
2. Is the background only 2->2 QCD, or are 4 jet MLM matched configurations included? Please clarify/comment on the impact.
3. On p5 the authors state that it makes no difference whether all quark or all gluon initiated jets are used. This is surprising. Can you give more detail on what evidence led to this conclusion?
4. The paragraph at the top of p6 is an example of confusing grammar, especially the sentence with "actually not the case". What is really meant here? Can you write it more clearly?
5. Please provide more detail/evidence on the "quick check" of detector effects.
6. Related to 5, was pile up considered? Can you comment on its potential impact?
7. I think I understood the paragraph at the top of page 8, but only after reading the later section. It is very unclear, can you please try to clarify it? This would seem to be quite critical to the overall conclusion.
8. The second sentence of the conclusions seems to say that by choosing specific model parameters you can reduce the model dependence. I think I can work out what is intended, but as written it doesn't really make sense. Please clarify.