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Optically detected magnetic resonance with an open source platform

by Hossein Babashah, Hoda Shirzad, Elena Losero, Valentin Goblot, Christophe Galland, Mayeul Chipaux

This is not the latest submitted version.

Submission summary

Authors (as Contributors): Mayeul Chipaux
Submission information
Arxiv Link: https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.00005v1 (pdf)
Code repository: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2205.00005
Data repository: https://github.com/QexSoftware/qudi
Date submitted: 2022-05-10 10:26
Submitted by: Chipaux, Mayeul
Submitted to: SciPost Physics
Ontological classification
Academic field: Physics
Specialties:
  • Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics - Experiment
  • Condensed Matter Physics - Experiment
  • Quantum Physics
Approach: Experimental

Abstract

Localized electronic spins in solid-state environments form versatile and robust platforms for quantum sensing, metrology and quantum information processing. With optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR), it is possible to prepare and readout highly coherent spin systems, up to room temperature, with orders of magnitude enhanced sensitivities and spatial resolutions compared to induction-based techniques, allowing single spin manipulations. While ODMR was first observed in organic molecules, many other systems are nowadays intensively being searched for, discovered and studied. Among them is the nitrogen-vacany (NV) center in diamond. Beyond ODMR it is notably already widely and successfully used both both as a high-resolution high-sensitivity quantum sensors for external fields and as a qubit. Others are rare earth ions used as quantum memories and many other color centers trapped in bulk or 2-dimensional materials. In order to allow the broadest possible community of researchers and engineers to investigate and develop novel ODMR-based materials and applications, we overview here the setting up of ODMR experiments using commercially available hardware. We also present in detail a dedicated collaborative open-source interface named Qudi and describe the original features we have added to speed-up data acquisition, relax instrumental requirements and widen its applicability to individual and ensemble ODMR systems. Associating hardware and software discussions, this article aims to steepen the learning curve of newcomers in ODMR from a variety of scientific backgrounds, to optimize the experimental development time, preempt the common measurement pitfalls, and to provide an efficient, portable and collaborative interface to explore innovative experiments.

Current status:
Has been resubmitted


Submission & Refereeing History

Resubmission 2205.00005v2 on 9 January 2023

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Submission 2205.00005v1 on 10 May 2022

Reports on this Submission

Anonymous Report 1 on 2022-12-5 (Invited Report)

Report

This paper clearly describes ODMR measurements with NV centers and the experimental setup it implies. It presents very meaningful discussions on techniques enabling the acquisition of the data. It introduces the software Qudi designed on purpose and explains how one can adapt it to its own experimental setup.

It can be a resource of great interest for researchers who are about to develop an ODMR setup. However, some revisions are needed to improve the clarity of the paper and to make it more valuable.

I recommend the publication of the article in SciPost if the following points are adressed:

-Section I is an overview of the systems that allows ODMR . It would be nice to add a discussion on the peculiarites of NV center like systems which enable the experimental techniques described in the following section. For exemple, off resonant excitation is possible with NV centers and not with rare earth ions.

-Regarding section II, the authors should precise the minimum equipement required to perform ODMR (including the sample). It would be useful for teaching.

- Table II stands that the light source needs a TEC. Is it really needed to realize the measurements described in section V? I would assume that cheaper Thorlabs lasers as CPS532 can be added to the list.

- DS instruments MW sources (SG4400L, SG6000L) can also be added as cheap alternatives.

-In table II, time-taggers are mentionned. It is quite confusing because as far as I understand, the time tagging method described in the text do not rely on this kind of expensive devices.

-Section IV, is a good but brief introduction to Qudi and explains how to adapt it to its own experimental equipement. The paper should point to the online documentation http://ulm-iqo.github.io/qudi-generated-docs/html-docs/ . Is it up to date regarding the added features mentionned in the paper?

-Section V is of great interest for people mounting their own ODMR setup. For that purpose, the authors should indicate what is the used sample for the measurements of figs 2, 3, 12, 13, 14 and 15. They should also provide exemples of cheap diamonds that can be used for testing the setup before going to more specific samples or for student labworks. I suggest MSY diamond for exemple.

-Section V also lacks numbers in the text. What is the typical PL count rates and contrast one can expect to achieve? What are the T1 and the T2 tipically obtained?

-Is it possible to use QUDI for more complexe sequences such as dynamical decoupling? A small discussion about it should be added. Do you advise to use Qudi in order to control experiments involving more devices and complex sequences? For exemple, to study quantum memories based on rare earth ions that you mention in table I?

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