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Probing non-thermal density fluctuations in the one-dimensional Bose gas

Jacopo De Nardis, Miłosz Panfil, Andrea Gambassi, Leticia F. Cugliandolo, Robert Konik, Laura Foini

SciPost Phys. 3, 023 (2017) · published 27 September 2017


Quantum integrable models display a rich variety of non-thermal excited states with unusual properties. The most common way to probe them is by performing a quantum quench, i.e., by letting a many-body initial state unitarily evolve with an integrable Hamiltonian. At late times, these systems are locally described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble with as many effective temperatures as their local conserved quantities. The experimental measurement of this macroscopic number of temperatures remains elusive. Here we show that they can be obtained by probing the dynamical structure factor of the system after the quench and by employing a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that we provide. Our procedure allows us to completely reconstruct the stationary state of a quantum integrable system from state-of-the-art experimental observations.

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Dynamical structure factors Fluctuation-dissipation theorem Generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) Integrability/integrable models Non-thermal states One-dimensional Bose gas Quantum quenches Stationary states

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