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Coupled Fredkin and Motzkin chains from quantum six- and nineteen-vertex models

Zhao Zhang, Israel Klich

SciPost Phys. 15, 044 (2023) · published 2 August 2023


We generalize the area-law violating models of Fredkin and Motzkin spin chains into two dimensions by building quantum six- and nineteen-vertex models with correlated interactions. The Hamiltonian is frustration free, and its projectors generate ergodic dynamics within the subspace of height configuration that are non negative. The ground state is a volume- and color-weighted superposition of classical bi-color vertex configurations with non-negative heights in the bulk and zero height on the boundary. The entanglement entropy between subsystems has a phase transition as the $q$-deformation parameter is tuned, which is shown to be robust in the presence of an external field acting on the color degree of freedom. The ground state undergoes a quantum phase transition between area- and volume-law entanglement phases with a critical point where entanglement entropy scales as a function $L\log L$ of the linear system size $L$. Intermediate power law scalings between $L\log L$ and $L^2$ can be achieved with an inhomogeneous deformation parameter that approaches 1 at different rates in the thermodynamic limit. For the $q>1$ phase, we construct a variational wave function that establishes an upper bound on the spectral gap that scales as $q^{-L^3/8}$.

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