One of the unique features of non-Hermitian (NH) systems is the appearance of NH degeneracies known as exceptional points (EPs). The extensively studied defective EPs occur when the Hamiltonian becomes non-diagonalizable. Aside from this degeneracy, we show that NH systems may host two further types of non-defective degeneracies, namely, non-defective EPs and ordinary (Hermitian) nodal points. The non-defective EPs manifest themselves by i) the diagonalizability of the NH Hamiltonian at these points and ii) the non-diagonalizability of the Hamiltonian along certain intersections of these points, resulting in instabilities in the Jordan decomposition when approaching the points from certain directions. We demonstrate that certain discrete symmetries, namely parity-time, parity-particle-hole, and pseudo-Hermitian symmetry, guarantee the occurrence of both defective and non-defective EPs. We extend this list of symmetries by including the NH time-reversal symmetry in two-band systems. Two-band and four-band models exemplify our findings. Through an example, we further reveal that ordinary nodal points may coexist with defective EPs in NH models when the above symmetries are relaxed.
Cited by 10
Authors / Affiliations: mappings to Contributors and OrganizationsSee all Organizations.
- 1 Max-Planck-Institut für die Physik des Lichts / Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light [MPL]
- 2 Stockholm University [Univ Stockholm]
- 3 Nordisk Institut for Teoretisk Fysik / Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics [NORDITA]
- Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse (Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation) (through Organization: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse / Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation)
- Vetenskapsrådet / Swedish Research Council