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Beyond PT-symmetry: Towards a symmetry-metric relation for time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonians

Luís F. Alves da Silva, Rodrigo A. Dourado, Miled H. Y. Moussa

SciPost Phys. Core 5, 012 (2022) · published 14 March 2022


In this work we first propose a method for the derivation of a general continuous antilinear time-dependent (TD) symmetry operator I(t) for a TD non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H(t). Assuming H(t) to be simultaneously ρ(t)-pseudo-Hermitian and Ξ(t)-anti-pseudo-Hermitian, we also derive the antilinear symmetry I(t)=Ξ⁻¹(t)ρ(t), which retrieves an important result obtained by Mostafazadeh [J. Math, Phys. 43, 3944 (2002)] for the time-independent (TI) scenario. We apply our method for the derivaton of the symmetry associated with TD non-Hermitian linear and quadratic Hamiltonians. The computed TD symmetry operators for both cases are then particularized for their equivalent TI lHamiltonians and PT-symmetric restrictions. In the TI scenario we retrieve the well-known Bender-Berry-Mandilara result for the symmetry operator: I^{2k}=1 with k odd [J. Phys. A 35, L467 (2002)]. The results here derived allow us to propose a useful symmetry-metric relation for TD non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. From this relation the TD metric is automatically derived from the TD symmetry of the problem. Then, when placed in perspective with the antilinear symmetry I(t)=Ξ⁻¹(t)ρ(t), the symmetry-metric relation finally allow us to derive the Ξ(t)-anti-pseudo-Hermitian operator. Our results reinforce the prospects of going beyond PT-symmetric quantum mechanics making the field of pseudo-Hermiticity even more comprehensive and promising.

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