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Symmetry-resolved dynamical purification in synthetic quantum matter

Vittorio Vitale, Andreas Elben, Richard Kueng, Antoine Neven, Jose Carrasco, Barbara Kraus, Peter Zoller, Pasquale Calabrese, Benoit Vermersch, Marcello Dalmonte

SciPost Phys. 12, 106 (2022) · published 25 March 2022

Abstract

When a quantum system initialized in a product state is subjected to either coherent or incoherent dynamics, the entropy of any of its connected partitions generically increases as a function of time, signalling the inevitable spreading of (quantum) information throughout the system. Here, we show that, in the presence of continuous symmetries and under ubiquitous experimental conditions, symmetry-resolved information spreading is inhibited due to the competition of coherent and incoherent dynamics: in given quantum number sectors, entropy decreases as a function of time, signalling dynamical purification. Such dynamical purification bridges between two distinct short and intermediate time regimes, characterized by a log-volume and log-area entropy law, respectively. It is generic to symmetric quantum evolution, and as such occurs for different partition geometry and topology, and classes of (local) Liouville dynamics. We then develop a protocol to measure symmetry-resolved entropies and negativities in synthetic quantum systems based on the random unitary toolbox, and demonstrate the generality of dynamical purification using experimental data from trapped ion experiments [Brydges et al., Science 364, 260 (2019)]. Our work shows that symmetry plays a key role as a magnifying glass to characterize many-body dynamics in open quantum systems, and, in particular, in noisy-intermediate scale quantum devices.

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