Ferdinand Tschirsich, Simone Montangero, Marcello Dalmonte
SciPost Phys. 6, 028 (2019) ·
published 6 March 2019

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We investigate the ground state phase diagram of square ice  a U(1) lattice
gauge theory in two spatial dimensions  using gauge invariant tensor network
techniques. By correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement diagnostics,
we characterize its phases and the transitions between them, finding good
agreement with previous studies. We study the entanglement properties of string
excitations on top of the ground state, and provide direct evidence of the fact
that the latter are described by a conformal field theory. Our results pave the
way to the application of tensor network methods to confining, twodimensional
lattice gauge theories, to investigate their phase diagrams and lowlying
excitations.
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